Radiography (X-ray examination)

Radiography

X-ray is the examination of internal organs and systems by projecting them on special paper or film using X-rays. X-rays are the negative and indicate inflammation or pathology as a light areas on the image and ussually called "darkening", and vice versa "clean" soft tissues will be shown as black. Healthy bones will be white in the image while the fracture will have a black "gap". Radiography can show all diseases without exception: from pneumonia to oncology.

When X-rays are used

Modern medicine has many other successful diagnostic methods besides X-rays, but there are still areas where the use of X-rays remains the leading method of examination. And they are primarily the following:

  • diagnosis of fractures and bone injuries;
  • diagnosis of breast diseases;
  • examination of specific lesions in infectious diseases such as arthritis, pneumonia or myocarditis, tuberculosis (it is radiography will detect tuberculous lesions in the early stages of development);
  • in some certain cases, if individually indicated, X-ray diagnosis states of digestive organs, joints, kidneys, spine and liver.

Is X-ray dangerous

There are dozens of radiation types, but they all differ in their effect on the human body, so they should not be compared and confused. X-rays have nothing to do with radionuclide radiation, which is harmful to health.

The X-ray passing through the body within a fraction of a second, then it disperses and disappears. In the modern digital X-ray machines the effect of ray penetration lasts one hundredth of a second. During the examination, non-diagnostic areas of the body are covered with a protective apron to protect them from the scattered residual radiation. Also, the X-ray machine provides settings for adults and children separately, and the installation of a narrowed radiation field for accurate aiming at the study area.

Therefore, X-rays can be performed regardless of the frequency or volume of the examination, but there must be clear and essential clinical indications. X-rays are designed to answer the questions and assumptions of a doctor about a particular disease, so the prescription for this medical examinations  and interpretation of the radiography can be performed by a doctor only.

Contraindication

X-rays are not the preferred method of examination for pregnant women, infants and young children.

Types of radiography performed at Manufactura Clinic:

  • X-rays survey covers a large part of the body and is designed to give a general idea of health state.
  • Aimed X-says (sighting diagnosis) are performed with a special nozzle allowing to take pictures of a specific organ or area.
  • X-rays with functional tests are performed as a series of images in different projections with maximum flexion and extension of the examination area.

Mammography

Mammography (also called mammogram) is an X-ray of the mammary glands which is currently the most effective way to examine breast health and detect cancer in its early stages. There are X-ray survey (screening) and diagnostic (sighting) mammography.

  • Screening mammography is a overview allowing to assess the tissues condition and to find abnormal changes like tumors. It is usually recommended to women at risk:
    • women over 45 years;
    • women with suspected tumors detected during a manual examination,
    • women whose mothers or grandmothers have been diagnosed with breast cancer.

The screening mammogram reveals tumors of non-malignant origin and abnormal tissue changes that require additional examination to confirm cancer.

  • Diagnostic mammography is a targeted study of the detected abnormal changes in the tissues for an accurate diagnosis and treatment choice.

When and how a mammogram is performed

A screening mammogram does not require a referral from a doctor if you are at risk. Targeted mammography is performed under the direction of a mammologist or ultrasound specialist.

The examination is performed on a special X-ray machine, which fixes the breast between two plates before the image. It is that process which can cause discomfort or minor pain. It is recommended to undergo examination in the first week after the last day of menstruation, and to avoid during it and in the last week of the cycle, given the excessive pain sensitivity of the breast during these periods.

Important! Deodorants, talc, some perfume compounds and cream ingredients can create false marks on the image, so you should avoid using them on the day of diagnosis and wash them thoroughly the day before the day of the examination.

Read more about examinations and frequently asked questions in our article "Mammography: what is important".

Excretory urography and cystography

This is an X-ray examination using a contrast (iodine-containing) substance to detect abnormalities in the development and to assess the functional state of the kidneys and urinary tract, kidney stones localization, tumors and other formations.

Indications for excretory urography and cystography:

  • hematuria;
  • suspicion of kidney stones;
  • diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract;
  • control of treatment results.

Contraindications to excretory urography and cystography:

  • severe renal insufficiency (creatinine serum is twice the norm, the relative density of urine is below 1.010);
  • severe disorders of the liver, heart, blood vessels;
  • allergy or hypersensitivity to iodine;
  • acute inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract;
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • pregnancy;
  • diathesis.

How excretory urography and cystography are performed

Iodine-containing agent is injected intravenously and in 1-2 minutes the whole kidneys’ parenchyma is saturated  with it. After 5-10 minutes with satisfactory renal function, the pelvic system and upper urinary tract begin to appear.

To get a complete picture a serial of X-rays images are taken in 7-10 minutes after the injection of contrast agent, the next one – in the 15-20 minutes after it, and one more - after 25-30 minutes. To assess the contours, size and condition of the bladder, X-rays are taken one hour after the contrast agent injection.

In case of kidneys’ dysfunction there are delayed pictures series:  in 40-60 min. and in 1,5-2 h. One of the pictures can be taken on the inhale and exhale (to clarify if there is kidneys mobility).

Important! A blood test to creatine and an iodine allergy test are mandatory before the examination.

X-ray examination in Manufactura clinic

The diagnostic department of our clinic uses only modern high-precision imaging devices giving the informative ability of views in different planes , allowing to detect a number of diseases and objectively confirm the presence of pathology, as well as to track the process  in dynamics and evaluate the success of conservative or surgical treatment. We perform diagnostics at a high level, in comfortable conditions and with minimally low impact to the body.

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